V. N. Lazhentsev
ACADEMIC SCIENCE AND NEW INDUSTRIALIZATION (EXAMPLE OF THE KOMI REPUBLIC)
Authors: V. N. Lazhentsev — Institute of Socio-Economic and Power Problems of the North, Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of
Sciences (Syktyvkar, Russian Federation)
Today, the new guidelines of strategic planning for the development of Russia and its regions are increasingly determined by science and technological progress. The results of scientific research, which deserve attention in terms of improving the scientific, technical, and socioeconomic processes in the Northern and Arctic territorial and economic systems (in our case, the Komi Republic), are usually presented in the form of interdisciplinary projects that generate the results of studies on socioeconomic, humanitarian, and medical and biological problems as well as on the issues of preserving the biosphere and ecosystems with simultaneous development of bioresource economy, rational use of mineral and energy resources, spatial development, and creation and use of innovative technologies. The key idea of this article is implementing the new industrialization in the Komi Republic by taking into account the results of research conducted at the institutes of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The applied research of the institutes of Komi Scientific Centre is based on fundamental studies and closely connected with the practice of development and distribution of productive forces. It is focused on implementing the new paradigm of Northern policy aimed at not only the development of mineral and energy resources for external consumers but also at improvement, sustainable development, and creation of appropriate conditions for the people who put their roots in the North. Particular attention is drawn to the reproduction of human and natural resource potentials. The sectoral structure of the economy of the republic, and most other Northern and Arctic regions, will not change dramatically in the future, but the inner content of productive forces will be different in line with the concept of resource-based innovative development.
Keywords: Komi Republic; Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; regional development; relationship between science and practice; science and advanced industrial and social technologies; new industrialization
V. A. Tsvetkov, K. Kh. Zoidov, A. A. Medkov
IMPLEMENTING URGENT TRANSPORT AND TRANSIT PROJECTS BASED ON PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN RUSSIA
Authors: V. A. Tsvetkov, K. Kh. Zoidov, A. A. Medkov — Market Economy Institute of RAS (Moscow, Russian Federation)
The article examines the main areas for implementing urgent transport and transit projects based on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Russia. This paper continues the study of theory and practice of using PPP to implement the investment projects aimed at developing and realizing the transport and transit potential of Russia. The authors used the methodological basis of the evolutionary and institutional theory, historical approach, system analysis, and theory of the rm to examine the ongoing projects aimed at developing the transport and transit system in Russia based on PPP, such as construction of high-speed Moscow — Kazan highway with its subsequent extension to the Chinese border, functioning of transport and logistics system in the Chelyabinsk region, infrastructural support for transit cargo shipments along the Northern Sea Route (NSR), participation of foreign investors in the development of Russian sea ports and approaches to them. It is shown that the provision of competitive advantages offered by transit shipping operations on a particular route requires a high speed of cargo transportation with a minimum of stops, handling, and transshipments along the route. The revenues from realizing transport and transit potential can be compared with the amount of resource rent only when Russia builds not just a transit sector but the production and transit sector in its economy. In this regard, the authors focused on defining the opportunity and necessity of organizational transformations associated with building a large public-private transport company that would be able to compete with global sea container companies on Asia—Europe routes. The article elaborated the main areas and measures under the proposed national project «Developing the Transit Economy in Russia: Uniting Eurasia» and its subprogram «Developing the Innovative Rolling Stock for Container and Multimodal Shipping Operations.» The finding of the study presented in the article may be used for preparing the state programs and projects that include a system of measures to develop and realize the transport and transit potential of Russia based on institutional and organizational transformations.
Keywords: urgent transport and transit projects, public-private partnership, institutions, organizations, transport and transit potential, transport construction, investments, concessions, transportation and logistics companies, rolling stock
I. A. Grechukhina, O. V. Kudryavtseva, E. Yu. Yakovleva
EFFICIENCY OF DEVELOPING RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET IN RUSSIA
Authors: I. A. Grechukhina, O. V. Kudryavtseva, E. Yu. Yakovleva — Lomonosov Moscow State University (Moscow, Russian Federation)
The goal of this study is to systematize and provide a quantitative and qualitative assessment of potential positive economic and non-economic effects of the implementation of a new mechanism for supporting renewable energy in Russia. It should result in achieving the national medium-term objective to increase the share of renewable energy in the wholesale electricity and capacity market to 2.5 % by 2024. The introduction examines the mechanism for supporting the generators of renewable energy by capacity charge in the wholesale electricity and capacity market. It is assumed that the main positive effects from implementing this mechanism will be the replacement of hydrocarbon fuels burned for generating the electricity in traditional coal or gas power plants; improvement in the trade balance; multiplier effects from the development of RES in related industrial sectors, new value added and jobs in the sectors producing the generating and auxiliary equipment for generators; reduction of carbon dioxide emissions; decrease in average prices in the wholesale electricity market; reduction of expenditure on environmental activities and measures to protect the health in the territories with traditional power plants; additional scal charges. As a result, the quantification of these effects amounts to 47.77 billion rubles in 2024. The authors rely on the experience of foreign countries, expert estimates, forecasts by the Russian Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Economic Development, research by the Russian Energy Agency, International Energy Agency, International Renewable Energy Agency, Community for Renewable Energy Policy in the 21st Century (REN21), statistics of Russian Federal State Statistics Service.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar energy, wind energy, small hydropower, bioenergy, RES, RES support mechanisms, capacity charge, capacity provision contract, wholesale electricity and capacity market
Ye. V. Ryumina
QUALITY OF LIFE ASSESSMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Authors: Ye. V. Ryumina — Institute of Social and Economic Studies of Population of RAS (Moscow, Russian Federation)
This article deals with the search for indicators that reflect the environmental conditions of life, environmental behavior of people and may be used in the economic analysis. This environmental and economic problem has not yet been solved. The indicators used in many economic papers to measure the emissions and discharges of harmful substances into the atmosphere and water bodies describe the impact on the environment, which will manifest itself in the future periods and cannot adequately reflect its condition. The monitoring of environment by environmental experts provides, in particular, the percentage indicators of air and water samples that exceed MPC (maximum permissible concentration) in the total number of samples. They are already included in a number of statistical compilations. The article describes their practicality and benefits for making the concise records of the state of environment in the economic research. The author has studied the regional values of selected indicators and analyzed various hypotheses of their strong differentiation. Today, it is particularly urgent to include the environmental component in the indicators describing the quality of life, including the human development index. The author proposes to use the percentage of negative water and air samples as an additional, fourth component of the human development index. The article presents the results of calculating the environmentally adjusted human development index for all entities of the Russian Federation, which in a number of regions significantly differs from traditionally used value.
Keywords: environmental indicators, environmental conditions, air and water samples, quality of life, quality of population, human development index, region, state of environment, environmental impact, pollution level
Ye. V. Sapir, I. A. Karachev, Zh. Mingzhu
EXPORT POTENTIAL OF RUSSIAN PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES IN THE EMERGING REGIONAL CLUSTERS
Authors: E. V. Sapir, I. A. Karachyov — P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russian Federation), M. Zhang — Huadyan-Arkhangelsk CHP Plant (Beijing, China)
The article provides an analysis of comparative importance of the company export potential growth factors in the emerging pharmaceutical clusters of the European part of Russia. The classification and assessment of export potential factors in terms of the elements of such potential (production, financial, labor, marketing potential) allowed identifying a strong link between cluster and regional factor groups and results of export activities. The goal of this paper is to propose to pharmaceutical companies involved in foreign trade activities a set of measures based on the test of a scientific hypothesis to improve their export potential. The authors have proposed and tested the hypothesis that the cumulative effect of these factors leads to increased export opportunities for the pharmaceutical cluster and promotes the effective integration of the region into the global economy. The methodological base of the research was provided by the method of geoeconomic analysis of the regional economy combined with the method of econometric modeling involving the use of mathematical statistics. After studying five Russian pharmaceutical clusters, including Belgorod, Kaluga, Moscow, Oryol, Yaroslavl clusters, the authors identified a causal link between the company export potential growth and the factors of competitiveness and cluster origin (interacting business chains, relationship and interoperability of functions, compact location in the region). The authors elaborated a set of measures to maximize the competitive advantages of cluster organization for export activities of pharmaceutical companies. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are intended for pharmaceutical companies and the authorities of regions that implement the concept of cluster development. To achieve sustainable growth of export potential and development objectives, Russian export-oriented companies should pay more attention to implementing the marketing and organizational innovations, competent optimization of commercial expenses within the cluster, and development of logistics chains for drug deliveries from the laboratory to the final consumers.
Keywords: regional cluster, company export potential, geoeconomics, micro- and mesolevel factors, pharmaceutical industry
N. V. Kuznetsova, A. Yu. Timofeeva
PROBLEMS AND TOOLS FOR THE DETECTION OF THREATS TO PERSONNEL SECURITY IN THE REGION
Authors: N. V. Kuznetsova — Baikal State University (Irkutsk, Russian Federation), A. Yu. Timofeeva — Novosibirsk State Technical University (Novosibirsk, Russian Federation)
The study of threats negatively affecting the state and development of human resources as well as the types of security threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of ensuring personnel security. The aim of this article is the identification and clssification of the concepts of the main threats to personnel security in the region (the study is carried on the example of the Irkutsk region). On the basis of the content analysis of the Russian regulatory legal acts and scientific publications, the authors have identifed external and internal threats to personnel security in the region. As a result of the study, a list of threats to personnel security in the region, which consists of 37 items, is composed. The political, economic, demographic, social, technical, technological, ecological, legal, and ethnocultural types are demonstrated. It is found that internal threats to personnel security ( first of all, social and economic ones) dominate in the region. The urgency and importance of threats to personnel security in the region are assessed. The hierarchical factor analysis is used to identify types of threats (lower level factors) and to estimate their effect on the general level of the urgency of threats to personnel security (upper-level factor). It is found that legal threats and threats caused by the low labor potential of the region make the most significant effect. The following methods are used: content analysis, analysis of frequency tables and contingency tables, hierarchical factor and correlation analyses. The analysis is based on the materials of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015). In order to determine the correlation (coherence) of the experts’ assessments, the Kendall’s coeficient of concordance is calculated. The obtained results can be used for the study and identification of threats to personnel security, which are typical for a certain region, they can serve as a basis for the prediction and analysis of threats to personnel security in the region, as well as for the elaboration of countermeasures.
Keywords: region, human resources, regional security, personnel security, personnel security threats, typology of personnel security threats, acuteness of threats to personnel security, types of threats to personnel security, state of personnel security in the region
S. N. Kotlyarova
PRIORITY AREAS FOR THE SUPPORT AND PROMOTION OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Authors: S. N. Kotlyarova — Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of RAS (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
The issues of import dependency and import substitution are major factors in the development of Russian economy. The subject matter of this study is the import dependency of the construction industry in the area of technology, while the goal of the study is to identify the scale of the problem and justify the mechanisms to overcome it. The article substantiates the signi cance and importance of import substitution in the production of construction materials and equipment. In the construction industry, the import substitution can be implemented in two main areas that require different approaches in support and promotion. First, this is the import substitution of construction products aimed at minimizing the risks of disruption in the supply of imported construction products and preferential use of domestic analogs of imported construction products. Second, this is the import substitution of technologies used for construction products manufacturing, when such a substitution is focused on promoting the development of competitive domestic production and technological and managerial modernization in the construction materials industry and construction industry. In the construction industry, the processes of import substitution have a number of constraints. The article examines the capabilities and factors that limit import substitution. Particular attention is paid to the practice of building regional construction clusters as a tool for implementing the import substitution policy. The author critically examines the goals and principles in the establishment of clusters, proactive sources, transfer systems, and the use of knowledge and innovation. The article makes a conclusion on the need for the strategic development of new products for the construction sector and domestic Research and Development within not only sectoral but also a cross-sectoral framework. The author provides a rationale for the basic forms of state support required for implementing the import substitution policy in the construction industry. This includes organizational, administrative, and economic measures, the implementation of which during the transition to import substitution could reduce the cost of construction materials, products, and structures. At the end of the article, the author formulates the priority areas for support under the policy aimed at promoting import substitution in the construction industry. The conclusions and recommendations proposed in this paper can be used by federal and regional authorities in the elaboration and adoption of strategic documents for the development of construction industry and in the planning of spatial development of the territories as well.
Keywords: import dependency, construction industry, promotion of import substitution, competitiveness of construction industry, cross-sectoral cluster, technological renewal, innovation in the construction, import substitution policy, promotion of development, import substitution mechanism
А. I. Altukhov, V. V. Drokin, А. S. Zhuravlyov
FROM THE STRATEGY OF FOOD INDEPENDENCE TO THE STRATEGY OF RAISING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF AGROINDUSTRY
Authors: А. I. Altukhov — All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Economics (Moscow, Russian Federation), V. V. Drokin, А. S. Zhuravlev — Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of RAS (Еkaterinburg, Russian Federation)
In the conditions of the globalization of national economies, the current situation in macroeconomics and, as a result, the need to improve the quality of life of the population, it is necessary to clearly outline and resolve the following three strategic tasks of the country’s agro-food industry: ensuring the country’s foodstaff independence based on import substitution; raising the competitiveness of farm products; developing the high level standard of living at the rural area based on the socio-economic development of the territories. The analysis of the government policy documents and concepts for developing the agricultural sector of the economy has revealed the following. The State Program for the Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets, Agricultural Raw Materials and Foodstuff in 2013–2020 is the main active tool, a primary factor of accelerated agro-food import substitution, and a foundation for the new national agricultural policy. At the same time, the program does not answer the question, how one can really improve the competitiveness of national farm products. It does not outline the tasks and mechanisms to raise the standard of living for the rural population. The article considers the necessity to increase the competitiveness of agro-food sector as a prospective strategic direction in the government export policy. It clarifes the key factors of the influence on the competitiveness of the national farm products, namely: at the macroeconomic level—equivalence of cross-sector exchange, subsidizing and credit financing of the agro-food sector; at the sectoral level—territorial and sectoral specialization in agricultural production and the system of pro t distribution between the producers, processors and retailers of the farm products. The article outlines the possible ways of employment assistance for the rural population left without jobs as a result of improving the competitiveness of the agricultural production. It shows the expediency of the development of both the single scientifically-based interministerial document in the form of the national strategy and some relevant programs to improve the competitiveness of the country’s agro-food industry, employment and income of the rural population.
Keywords: agro-food industry, state program, import substitution, macroeconomic factors, territorial and sectoral specialization, household agriculture, agricultural organizations, dairy cattle breeding
N. Z. Solodilova, R. I. Malikov, K. E. Grishin
INFLUENCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION
Authors: N. Z. Solodilova, R. I. Malikov, K. E. Grishin — Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
The article discusses the theoretical issues of the formation of the administrative regulation mechanisms for business entities. The necessity of the further development of theoretical and methodological base and the application tools for the design of business environment is proved. This can stimulate the growth of business and investment activity in the Russian regions and municipalities. The authors identify two types of government structures influence on the business entities, differentiated by the nature of the targeting impact on the economic activity of business structures—the administrative pressure and administrative assistance. It is suggested that in practice, high cost implications for compliance with all regulation requirements as well as sanctions for the violation of these requirements create preconditions for the development of informal interaction between entrepreneurs and the representatives of regulatory bodies. Therefore, businessmen try to minimize the costs associated with the implementation of formal administrative requirements, rules and regulations by personal arrangements. A mathematical model for the assessment of the informal interaction between business entities and certain officials of control supervisory authorities is proposed. It allows to determine the range of benefits for economic entities from avoiding the implementation of administrative norms, requirements and rules. It is concluded that unreasonably high level of costs for the implementation of formal administrative requirements rules and regulations by business entities composes the economic basis for the reproduction of informal relations. This determines mutual benefits for a number of entrepreneurs and a part of bureaucracy from various schemes of informal interaction.
Keywords: administrative control, business entities, business, administrative costs, informal interaction, administrative pressure, business environment, power structures, control and supervision activities, excessive formal administrative requirements
E. M. Avraamova, D. M. Loginov
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF RAISING TEACHERS’ REMUNERATION
Authors: E. M. Avraamova, D. M. Loginov — Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Moscow, Russian Federation)
The subject matter of this article is the socio-economic outcome of teacher’s remuneration reform, which made a positive impact on the quality of school education. However, the economic difficulties currently experienced by Russia could jeopardize the achieved progress. This paper is based on the results of «The Effectiveness of the School Education» monitoring study conducted by the Center for Continuing Education Economics of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA) in 2015 in Sverdlovsk, Voronezh, and Ivanovo regions. The study included a survey of 2,800 school teachers, 2,800 households with at least one school student, and 200 principals of educational institutions, which was conducted in the form of questionnaire interview. The survey was conducted on a representative sample including both urban and rural populations. The study showed that, in 2013/2014 school year, the average salary of teachers reached the average salary in the region, which complied with the requirements of the May 2012 Presidential Decree. This ratio was maintained in the following year. Moreover, the salary of teachers fully reflected the differentiation of socio-economic development indicators in the reviewed Russian regions. The main positive effects resulting of raising teachers’ remuneration include rejuvenation of the teaching corps, improvement of teachers’ qualifications and their entry into the Russian middle class. The article also examines the impact of negative developments in the economy on the prospects for reproduction of socio- economic results achieved by raising teachers’ remuneration. Among such effects, the authors consider the decline in income of school students’ parents, which may lead to lower demand for paid educational services that are a source of extra-budgetary funding for school education. In this light, the authors review the projective educational strategies of school students’ parents. Based on the analysis of economic activities of school institutions and educational strategies of school students’ parents in the unfavorable economic environment, the article shows that any decrease in school funding from regional budgets (as a result of their de cit) will lead to the undermining of achieved results.
Keywords: effectiveness of school education, teachers’ remuneration, workforce capacity of Russian school education, professionalization of teachers, middle class, school education, educational strategies, education policy, social policy, economic crisis
G. T. Gafurova, G. N. Notfullina, S. P. Fukina
GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENTS AS A TOOL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN RUSSIA
Authors: G.T. Gafurova, G.N. Notfullina, S.P. Fukina — Kazan Innovation University named after V.G. Timiryasova (Kazan, Russian Federation)
The question of the development of small and medium business is relevant for several decades. This article considers questions regarding the support of small business through the government procurement system. In the framework of the present study, the author attempted to systematize data on the dynamics (since the adoption of the Federal Public Contracts Act), and the structure of government procurement in terms of participation of small businesses in the procurement process, which revealed certain trends. The main research methods were vertical and horizontal analysis of dynamic series, correlation and regression models of the panel data. Data on the participation of small businesses in government procurement are grouped according to various criteria depending on the purpose of analysis. Groups of data were analyzed by 83 subjects of the Russian Federation, which enabled a full-scale assessment of the effectiveness of procurement in terms of the economy. To assess the influence of procurement on the development of small businesses, three hypotheses were put forward: increasing the number of customers placing orders for small businesses, as well as the reduction in the share of customers who do not meet the requirements of the law on the 15-percent threshold; this leads to an increase in budgetary savings, the increase in the number of applications for small businesses leads to an increase in the number of data entities in the regions, the number of orders placed for small businesses affect the cash ow of small businesses. On the basis of panel data for the period 2011–2015 years, a uni ed information system of state and municipal procurement which built econometric models, have confirmed the hypothesis put forward.
Keywords: small businesses, government procurement, government orders, budget savings, the state customer, regions, business development, cash ow of small businesses, contract procurement system, Law No 44-FZ
V. N. Bobkov, A. A. Litvinyuk, S. A. Ledneva
MOSCOW METROPOLIS LABOUR MARKET FEATURES: THE REQUIREMENTS OF EMPLOYERS AND THE QUALITY OF YOUNG SPECIALISTS
Authors: V. N. Bobkov — All-Russian Center of Living Standards (Moscow, Russian Federation), Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Moscow, Russian Federation), A. A. Litvinyuk, S. A. Ledneva — Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Moscow, Russian Federation)
The subject-matter of the article is the study of the features of the youth labour market in such a specific region of Russia as the city of Moscow. The topic of the work is connected with the adaptation of training system for young specialists to the regional requirements of the employers of Moscow. The main hypothesis of the research suggests that the city of Moscow is an atypical region of Russia and it makes no sense to apply the standard criteria and methodological approaches, which are typical to our country, to its labour market. As the research method, the authors have used a sample survey of the key Moscow employers and the respondents aged from 14 to 30 years. On the basis of the data of the sociological survey conducted by the authors, it was succeeded to identify the following features of the region in question: a relatively low level of the youth unemployment for Russia; the employers’ focus on such target signs of personnel as good communication skills, learning ability, professional knowledge and competences. The Moscow employers pay insufficient attention to such characteristics of young specialists as foreign language and computer skills, and a diploma of a prestigious education institution. The principal barriers that cause dificulties to the employment of young specialists in Moscow are: their overestimated salary expectations, poor professional training level and disinclination for work in principle. As a result of the survey, some practical proposals were formulated. Their application area is differentiated in two ways: focused on the young people’s behavior at the learning stage and focused on the improvement of the practical component of the activity of the vocational education institutions. The authors have come to the conclusions on the expediency of a deep focus of education institutions on the applied nature of training specialists, a need for attracting practitioners to teaching special disciplines, a need for developing the future specialists’ ability to present themselves and their work results in the professional environment (self-presentation), and an objective assessment of their real employment opportunities.
Keywords: youth, labour market, unemployment, professional competences, education institutions, employers, education, vertical integration, region, university