L. L. Bozhko
GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR MONOTOWNS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
Authors: L. L. Bozhko — Rudny Industrial Institute (Rudny, the Republic of Kazakhstan)
The objectives of the study are to identify the role of single-industry towns (also known as “monotowns”) in the economic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, to determine the specific features of monotowns and to assess the effectiveness of government program documents aimed at supporting these entities.
A number of research methods were used, including logical, systematic, structural-functional, comparative analysis, statistical and index methods, economic forecasting and sociological surveys. Using these methods in combination allowed the researcher to consider the phenomena and processes, the dynamics and development, thus providing evidence as to the reliability of the conclusions obtained.
As a result of this study, distinctive features of the socio-economic development of monotowns in the Republic of Kazakhstan were revealed. In addition, an evaluation was made of the main program documents aimed at supporting the development of monotowns; and the factors affecting their further development were identified. Proposals have been made in this study with regard to best ways in which to improve the monotown management systems both in terms of improving the program documents and in developing new evaluation tools.
The principal novel feature of this study is the identification of the main trends in the development of monotowns in the Republic of Kazakhstan. These trends reveal that, although monotowns do play an important role in the economy of the country, they also tend to develop in extremely uneven and inconsistent ways and are characterized by having weak economic diversification and a strong dependence on the town-forming enterprises, with these enterprises mainly being mining companies. The recommendations in this study are based on the need to improve both the administrative and economic methods used for the state regulation of monotowns. During this study, the feasibility of making adjustments in the current development programs aimed at supporting monotowns and the consistency of development programs were considered.
Keywords: monotown, governmental program, development specifics, support tools, town-forming enterprises, development strategy, regional development program, economic and social development, development tools, indicatorsShow references
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R-Economy Vol. 3, Issue 1, 2017
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24. Bozhko, L. L. & Leskova, L. G. (2015). Sovershenstvovanie metodologicheskih podhodov k upravleniyu razvitiem monogorodov v Respublike Kazahstan [Improvement of methodological approaches to monotowns’ development management in the Republic of Kazakhstan]. Munitsipalitet: ekonomika i upravlenie [Municipality: economics and management], 3, 16–26.
S. G. Piyankova
IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-INDUSTRY REGIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Authors: S. G. Piyankova — Ural State University of Economics (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
In this paper, the author has made a comprehensive analysis of a number of Russian studies devoted to single-industry towns, categorizing them according to their contribution to theoretical knowledge as well as their methods and methodology. Common features in these papers have been identified, including those establishing the criteria for classifying a city as a single-industry one and estimating the number of such cities in the Russian Federation in terms of their socio-economic status. Methods for assessing the socio-economic development of single-industry towns and directions for their development are proposed.
Having summarized existing theoretical and methodological approaches set out in the various papers reviewed, the author (1) proposes the adoption of the novel concept of a “single-industry region”; (2) identifies the criteria for assigning such a designation; (3) calculates the number of such single-industry regions in the Russian Federation; (4) suggests allocation of grants from the federal budget to the respective RF Subjects for improving the socio-economic situation in their single-industry towns; (5) classifies single-industry regions into (a) “balanced socio-economic development”, (b) “an unbalanced and backward economic development”, (c) “an unbalanced and backward social development” and finally (d) “deprived regions that are unbalanced and have very low levels of socio-economic development”.
The author has developed a model for improving the socio-economic development of single-industry regions, whose focus is on a balanced approach to project planning for the socioeconomic development of mono-cities and the efficient allocation of budgetary funds, providing mechanisms for regular and detailed monitoring of the socioeconomic development of mono-cities and allowing the effectiveness of the allocation of budgetary funds to be systematically monitored by introducing a system of grantification aimed at improving the socioeconomic development in mono-cities.
The scientific and practical results of the research will allow the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to improving the socioeconomic development of single-industry towns, facilitating the introduction of the new term “single-industry region” into the academic lexicon.
Keywords: mono-cities, region, single-industry region, improvement, development, criteria, city, financing, grants, efficiency, model, groupShow references
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I. I. Rakhmeeva
DEVELOPMENT OF A QUALITY RATING FOR REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN MUNICIPALITIES
Authors: I. I. Rakhmeeva — Ural State University of Economics (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
The aim of the study is to elaborate an assessment methodology for local government authorities regarding the quality of implementation of Regulatory Impact Assessment. The compilation of such rating will allow the identification of bottlenecks in the activities of local government authorities as well as best practices in the sphere of regulatory impact assessment. The relevance of research, on the one hand, is contingent upon the lack of methodological insights in the area of regulatory impact assessments at the local level, and, on the other, upon the active introduction of evaluation into municipal administrative practices. The experience of organising regulatory impact assessment at the local level and different approaches to rating formation is analysed in the study. It is shown that borrowing the regional rating methodology is not appropriate for evaluating municipalities. Principles for analysing the quality of evaluations in municipalities that take the specific character of its implementation into account, particularly at the local level, are formulated by the author. In the course of the study, features of regulatory impact assessment application at the municipal level are identified and approaches for monitoring the results of introducing regulatory impact assessment in municipalities are formulated. A system of indicators for the analysis of quality evaluation and expert evaluation by the bodies of local self-government are substantiated by the author along with a set of corrective measures. A method is proposed for the collection of information and formation of a rating on the basis of monitoring data. The formation of a rating of regulatory impact assessment quality on the basis of the author’s original developments allows corrective solutions to be applied in a timely manner and best practices to be replicated at the same time as encouraging the local self-governing bodies to improve assessment quality. The presented approaches and principles can be used by the authorities to develop specific methods for the monitoring of assessment quality at the local level during the initial stage of introducing the institution. With the accumulation of practical experience, improved qualifications on the part of municipal employees and civil society activities, a refinement of the theses formulated by the author will be required as a part of future research.
Keywords: Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA), examination of existing laws, RIA in municipalities, RIA municipality rating, rating methodology, RIA quality, regional economics, municipal economics, municipal law-making, regulatory policyShow references
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O. O. Komarevtseva
SMART CITY TECHNOLOGIES: NEW BARRIERS TO INVESTMENT OR A METHOD FOR SOLVING THE ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF MUNICIPALITIES?
Authors: O. O. Komarevtseva — Srednerussky Institute of Management Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Orel, Russian Federation)
The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of readiness of urban municipal entities of the Russian Federation for the implementation of Smart City technology. The author proposes a methodology for determining the level of preparedness of cities for the introduction of Smart City technologies, selecting those municipal projects (Smart-projects) most relevant to the present level of readiness and identifying the main barriers to their implementation. The study used structural and graphical analysis methods, overall assessment and ratings as well as the group method of data handling (GMDH). The study yielded the following conclusions: The majority of cities comprising administrative centres of the Subjects of the Russian Federation are not ready for the implementation of Smart City technologies. The main problems hindering the implementation of Smart Technologies are the municipalities’ low energy efficiency and high dependence on borrowed capital. The methodology proposed by the author for assessing the readiness of municipalities for the implementation of Smart City technologies will quickly and optimally identify metropolitan areas suitable for the implementation of Smart-technologies. The eld of application of the obtained results is sufficiently extensive. These results will be of interest to practitioners, representatives of state and local authorities, as well as for researchers in the fields of urban economics and urban studies. The main direction for future research consists in the provision of an underlying rationale for problem solving through launching Smart-projects in depressed and economically stagnating municipalities.
Keywords: smart city technologies, investments, municipal formation, smart projects, urban models, digital economy, innovation, creative technologies, stakeholder, Big DataShow references
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O. P. Kuznetsova, A. A. Kuzmenko, E. A. Yumaev
MEGA-CLUSTERS AS A TOOL OF INTERREGIONAL COOPERATION IN TOURISTS FIELD
Authors: O. P. Kuznetsova, A. A. Kuzmenko, E. A. Yumaev — Omsk State Technical University (Omsk, Russian Federation)
In order to diversify the Russian economy, it is necessary to pay great attention to the emerging sectors of the economy; with a systemic approach they are able to reveal their accumulated potential. Authors consider one of such industries to be the sphere of tourism. Russia has its own unique natural-recreational and cultural-historical potential, which is not fully utilized, and it is confirmed with the relevant statistics. The authors propose to accelerate the development of tourism by raising the level of interregional cooperation from the position of using coexisting competition and competitive coexistence in tourist mega-clusters. Due to the lack of financial resources for separate regions for the tourism development, the implementation of this approach is effective, as it allows achieving savings of money due to economies of scale. The phenomena of coexisting competition and competitive coexistence in the tourism sphere presuppose the unification of the different regions authorities’ efforts for the joint implementation of projects. Regions joining forces on the basis of coexisting competition and competitive coexistence within the mega-clusters will allow each administrative-territorial unit to develop and improve its competitive advantage by asking a stimulus to the development of the other participants. This approach makes it possible to obtain other positive effects noted in the study. Thus, findings broaden the knowledge about the phenomena of coexisting competition and competitive coexistence in the regional economy, about mega-clusters as tools for interregional interactions in the tourism sphere.
Keywords: region, tourism, coexisting competition, competitive coexistence, co-operation, competition, cluster, import substitution, tourism infrastructure, economies of scaleShow references
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N. V. Usova
IDENTIFICATION OF CONSUMER DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN A MAJOR CITY: A MARKET-BASED APPROACH
Authors: N.V. Usova — Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
The subject matter of this article consists in a comparative analysis of key indicators of consumer market development in major cities of various Subjects of the Russian Federation, which are located in the same macro-region, taking the first three places in the regional hierarchy according to the population of the RF Subject territory, comprising the centres of large urban agglomerations and making a significant contribution to the formation of regional indicators of socio-economic development. The article is based on Federal State Statistics Service data on three RF Subjects namely, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions covering the period from 2007 to 2015. The study is based on the analysis, classification and systematisation of the information of theoretical sources and statistical data relating to the study, as well as on the presentation of the author’s approaches and conclusions. Thus, within the framework of the research, the author considers different theoretical approaches to the consumer market and proposes a definition for the consumer market of a major city, taking into account the specifics of its functioning as an element of the economy of the city. With regard to the identification of development trends, in the framework of the study, new indices have been applied, such as “index of concentration of stationary retail establishments”, “index of concentration of non-stationary retail establishments”, “index of concentration of public canteens, snack bars”, “index of concentration of canteens owned by the educational institutions, organisations, industrial enterprises” and “index of concentration of restaurants, cafes, bars”. These indices characterise the degree of concentration of different types of retail establishments and catering establishments within a defined territory. According to the research, all cities included in the scope of the study have been grouped according to the identified consumer market development trends. The author has also developed a number of recommendations for the public authorities and local governments for improving the consumer markets of studied cities.
Keywords: consumer market, development trends and priorities, marketing approach, retail establishments, catering establishments, major city, comparative analysis, agglomeration, retail trade, trade centres, concentration, index of concentrationShow references
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I. M. Golova, A. F. Sukhovey, N. L. Nikulina
PROBLEMS IN INCREASING INNOVATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Authors: I.M. Golova, A. F. Sukhovey, N. L. Nikulina — Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of RAS (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
The article provides a comparative analysis of innovative and technological development in Russia and other countries. The paper shows that the innovation sector of the Russian Federation lags behind most developed and developing countries: Russia has almost left the market of high technologies, the main expenditures on innovations are incurred in the sectors of low and medium technology industries; the self-sufficiency in the Russian economy in a number of key types of manufacturing equipment is significantly below the threshold marks determined by national security requirements. The authors describe the differentiation of innovative development in the Russian regions. The study of Russian innovation space has revealed that there are fairly intensive processes of science decay on the periphery, which causes serious problems for the spread of innovative impulses across the country. The article elaborates the methodology for comprehensive assessment of innovative security in the region and presents the relevant calculations for the regions of the Ural Federal District (UFD). It identifies the factors of innovative sustainability that are the most critical for these regions. The authors present the forecast and built long-term forecast trajectories for the level of innovative security in UFD by using the modernized Hurst method. They define the main barriers to the innovative development of Russian regions. The article presents the methodological approaches to substantiating the priority areas for building the innovative systems of regions by taking into account the characteristics of their science and manufacturing complexes. The authors propose a methodology to formally assess the priority of establishing in the region the centers of innovative activity aimed at supporting the competitiveness of industries with different levels of technology intensity. The paper presents the results of calculations with regard to priority of establishing the centers of innovative activity aimed at supporting the development of industries with different level of technology intensity using the example of UFD, one of the leading Russian regions in terms of innovation and production capacity.
Keywords: innovative sustainability, innovative and technological development, innovative security of the region, innovation system, innovation capacity, innovation development strategy, innovation centers, priorities of innovative activity, high-tech industries, medium-tech industries, low-tech industriesShow references
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G. E. Zborovsky, P. A. Ambarova
CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OF TRANSITION TO THE NON-LINEAR MODELS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE REGION
Authors: G.E. Zborovsky, P.A. Ambarova — Ural Federal University (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
The subject matter of the analysis is the non-linear characteristics of the new model of higher education in relation to its resources and risk environment. The purpose of this article is to prove the need and the possibility of transition to the non-linear model of higher education in the region on the basis of theoretical positions and the results of the study of non-linear socio-economic processes. In this connection, the socio-economic factors of such transition are characterized; the objective necessity of its implementation in the context of the economic and social uncertainty of a particular region, which is Ural Federal District, is shown. A new type of relationship between universities and their social partners is considered. The need for the change of interactions between educational communities; reliance on the use of a new wide range of economic, social and spiritual resources; the constant search for new mechanisms, educational programs, relations with the external environment, management decisions are argued. Ural Federal District is shown as one of the most advanced regions of the Russian Federation not only in the sphere of the economy, social and cultural life, but also in the sphere of higher education. This circumstance is related to the constant, intensive search for innovative approaches to the modernization of higher education in the region, including the formation of its non-linear model. The presented situation forms the basis of the hypothesis that the non-linear model of higher education can ensure its competitiveness in the global educational space, to enhance its role in the society and specific regions of the country and to turn it to a locomotive of the socio-economic and socio-cultural development. The study is based on an interdisciplinary methodology, including the potential of theoretical sociology, sociology of education, economic sociology, management theory, regional economy. The findings of the research serve as the basis for improving the educational pol- icy of the Ural Federal District.
Keywords: social and economic uncertainty, risks, challenges, vulnerabilities, non-linear economic processes, non-linear model of higher education, regional economy, the region’s system of higher education, social partnership in education, educational communitiesShow references
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